The P2P-Next integrated project will build a next generation Peer-to-Peer (P2P) content delivery platform, to be designed, developed, and applied jointly by a consortium consisting of high-profile academic and industrial players with proven track records in innovation and commercial success.

The current infrastructure of the Internet is not suited to simultaneous transmission of live events to millions of people (i.e. broadcasting). The problem is that a dedicated stream of data must be sent to every single user. With millions of potential users, the simultaneous streams of data will easily congest the Internet. For several years, we have been told that the answer to this problem is “multicasting”, whereby the data stream is distributed to many local servers that subsequently “re-broadcast” the content to local users.

However, most IP routers of the Internet cannot support multicasting and there seems to be no financial incentive for the ISPs to introduce multicasting. Also, the use of Audiovisual Media is moving from a collective and passive approach to personal active behavior, at home and in mobile situations outside the home. At the same time use patterns are shifting towards non-linear usages, moving away from the classic model of linear broadcast TV. The TV set no longer has the monopoly of delivery of audiovisual content; the PC and related media centers, mobile phones, and potentially initiatives from new stakeholders are all becoming increasingly important.

In such heterogeneous environments, efficient content delivery needs optimized unicast, multicast, broadcast, and also support for new mechanisms that have been made possible by the recent advances in P2P grids. This situation has important consequences for the existing business models and institutions, as well as for content production, content distribution, and end user experience on various terminals. This particular holds for stakeholders that propose services based on heterogeneous terminals and networks, together with the demand from users of transparent service continuity.

This makes Peer-to-Peer -based technologies that can provide efficient and low-cost delivery of professional and user created content essential for the technologically-competitive future Europe.
In response to these challenges, the objective of P2P-Next is to move forward the technical enablers to facilitate new business scenarios for the complete value chain in the content domain from a linear unidirectional push mode to a user centric, time and place independent platform paradigm. A platform approach allows modular development and modular applications, enables knowledge sharing and facilitates technology integration, code- and skill re-use. This translates to fast development of new content delivery applications that build value for service and content providers.

P2P-Next will develop a platform that takes open source development, open standards, and future proof iterative integration as key design principles. These requirements will be developed through collaboration with European and national initiatives, as well as some of the largest and most sophisticated actors in the media and telecommunications sector, ensuring industrial relevance and worldwide application reach. P2P-Next involves 21 partners in 12 different countries, including large European players to ensure the future project’s sustainability, SMEs and Subject Matter Experts to manage highly-focused technology components.

P2P-Next will advance the state-of-the-art in important areas, including evolutionary content distribution, easy access to vast amount of content with metadata federation, social networking, and innovative business models for advertising. The sum of these advances is a large step towards moving the information access from the hands of a producer to the hands of the consumer, and allowing consumers to enjoy and utilise content resources in a mobile and pervasive manner, across the great online space.

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Tech. Behind Wireless Earbuds And How To Choose Best Ones

With the release of the Apple air pods, there has been a sudden interest in earbuds and everyone is clamoring to get their own models. While the Apple model is expensive and is suitable only with the iOS interface, there are several players in the market currently who offer wireless earbuds in a varying price range and with several additional features. And the best part is that you don’t need an Apple product you use them.

But as is the case with too much choice, not everyone knows how to choose the best wireless earbuds. There are still many who are naïve and need help. If you belong to the group of the eager-to-learn-and-own category just read on before you get your hands on your own set of earbuds.

It is not necessary to understand the technology in detail but it helps to know which technology your earbuds are built on and what are its advantages and disadvantages. The most popular technology is Bluetooth as everyone knows but there are there other types that you must be aware of.

Infrared: This technology is predominantly used in TVs and remote controllers but there are still some models which use this technology for earphones. The biggest challenge to this technology is that the transmitter and the headset must be in line with each other. This limits the distance and the angle of use and makes them unsuitable for our purpose.

Radio frequency: This is better than infrared but not good enough and is limited by distance and interference. It is not secure like Bluetooth either.

NFC: This technology can function when the two devices are in close proximity to each other. But again this is limited to NFC enabled devices only and cannot be used with all phones.

Bluetooth: This is the best and most in vogue technology for wireless earphones. This has a very large range of up to 32 feet, is secure and almost all electronic devices that are currently manufactured are incorporated with Bluetooth technology.

The Bluetooth enabled devices to come with inbuilt control buttons. Hence, you can control your music, the volume and even shuffle the tracks just with the touch of a button. You need not reach your phone each time you wish to make a change. Some earbuds come with microphones to allow you to take calls once again with the touch of a button.

Bluetooth uses short wavelength radio waves between 2.4 to 2.485 GHz frequencies. It took four years since its invention in 1994 for this technology to hit the market. The first version is practically nonexistent; the second version released in 2004 is very popular before the more prevalent Bluetooth 4.x hit the market in 2010.

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